Major General Andrew Jackson's official report (with map) to Tennessee Governor Willie Blount following the 1814 Battle of Horseshoe Bend
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- Created Date
- 1814 March 31
Andrew Jackson's handwritten, official report of the Battle of Horseshoe Bend to Governor Willie Blount. Gen. Jackson goes into considerable detail about his approach to the Red Stick Creek's fortified bend of the Tallapoosa River, which "barbarians have never rendered...more secure by art." Jackson specifically commends the conduct of his Cherokee allies, "headed by their gallant Chieftain Col. Richard Brown." A hand-drawn map depicting the battle prefaces the written report, in which Jackson gives a blow-by-blow account of the battle and its aftermath. Horseshoe Bend was a decisive victory for Jackson's Tennesseans--the "slaughter," he says, "was suspended only by the darkness of night"--and Creek military power was broken.
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend was fought on March 27, 1814, between the war faction (Red Stick) Creek and a coalition of American and Native American troops. The decisive battle proved to be the climax of the Creek War, a conflict between warring factions of Creek and their allies as a part of the War of 1812. Major General Andrew Jackson led a force of just over 2,700 soldiers composed of US Regulars, Tennessee militia and volunteers, as well as 500 Cherokee and 100 allied Creek warriors to a Red Stick fortification at a bend on the Tallapoosa River in present-day Alabama. Jackson estimated that the defending Red Sticks numbered about a thousand. Jackson sent General John Coffee, the cavalry, and almost all of their Indian allies to encircle the encampment and prevent any escape. A two hour artillery barrage preceded a covert attack on the fortification led by Captain Russell, Colonel Richard Brown [Cherokee], and Colonel Morgan, who was in overall command of the Cherokee. This small force set fire to a few of the buildings in an attempt to force the Red Sticks out. The 39th US Infantry, raised almost exclusively in Tennessee and led by Colonel John Williams and Major Lemuel Montgomery, mounted a simultaneous frontal assault of the fortification. Third lieutenant Sam Houston participated in this assault and was wounded, while Montgomery was killed. In his official report, Jackson recorded, "The enemy, altho[ugh] many of them fought to the last with that kind of bravery which desperation inspires, were at length entirely routed and cut to pieces." Many escaping Red Sticks were killed by Coffee's troops. Jackson estimated 800 enemy were killed, including their prophet, Monahee, who was shot in the mouth. Jackson commented, "as if heaven designed to chastise his impostures by an appropriate punishment." He reported that 26 white men were killed along with 18 Cherokee, with 107 and 36 wounded, respectively.
- Jackson, Andrew, 1767-1845
- Digital Library of Tennessee
- Contributing Institution
- Tennessee State Library & Archives
- Creek War, 1813-1814
Horseshoe Bend, Battle of, Ala., 1814
United States--History--War of 1812
U.S. Army campaigns of the War of 1812
Campaigns & Battles
- Tallapoosa County (Ala.)
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- The organization that has made the Item available believes that the Item is in the Public Domain under the laws of the United States, but a determination was not made as to its copyright status under the copyright laws of other countries. The Item may not be in the Public Domain under the laws of other countries. Please refer to the organization that has made the Item available for more information.
- Chicago citation style
- Jackson, Andrew, 1767-1845. Major General Andrew Jackson's official report (with map) to Tennessee Governor Willie Blount following the 1814 Battle of Horseshoe Bend. 1814 March 31. Retrieved from the Digital Public Library of America, http://cdm15138.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15138coll33/id/252. (Accessed September 21, 2019.)
- APA citation style
- Jackson, Andrew, 1767-1845, (1814 March 31) Major General Andrew Jackson's official report (with map) to Tennessee Governor Willie Blount following the 1814 Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Retrieved from the Digital Public Library of America, http://cdm15138.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15138coll33/id/252
- MLA citation style
- Jackson, Andrew, 1767-1845. Retrieved from the Digital Public Library of America <http://cdm15138.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15138coll33/id/252>.